On Sunday 19 September, King Willem-Alexander will officially open the Dutch Holocaust Memorial of Names, commissioned by the Dutch Auschwitz Committee, in Amsterdam. The monument – designed by Daniel Libeskind – commemorates 102,000 Dutch victims (Jews, Roma and Sinti) who perished during the Second World War. For the past five years, Rijnboutt has fulfilled the role of coordinating and executive architect in this special project.
The design and its integration into public space
The monument is located in the former Weesperplantsoen in Amsterdam, between Weesperstraat and the Garden of the Protestant Diaconate. The location makes perfect sense: it is in the middle of the Jewish Quarter and close to important Jewish cultural buildings, such as the Portuguese Synagogue and the Jewish Historical Museum.
Daniel Libeskind设计了一座由102,000块独特砖砌成的非线性迷宫墙。每块砖都代表一个人，这座纪念碑可以让人们深刻认识到大屠杀期间遇难者人数的规模。纪念碑展示了四个由反光不锈钢制成的物体：希伯来字母לזכר,表示“缅怀”或“纪念”。周围环境由墙上的镜面反射，产生了万花筒般的效果，使得这些元素似乎漂浮在纪念墙的周围。虚浮代表历史的不连续性。看似简单，但墙壁上承载着巨大的、突出的字母，仅由26根柱子支撑，总重达150吨。该结构的比例也是与Rijnboutt合作完成，Studio Daniël Libeskind监督美学设计。
Daniel Libeskind’s design consists of a non-linear labyrinth of walls built with 102,000 unique bricks. As each brick represents an individual, the monument gives an idea of the scale of the number of victims during the Holocaust. The monument displays four objects made of reflective stainless steel: the Hebrew letters לזכר ,which denote ‘in memoriam’ or ’in remembrance of’. The fact that the surroundings and even the reflection of the surroundings are mirrored creates a kaleidoscopic effect. The elements seem to float in front of the walls; the emptiness represents the discontinuity of history. It may seem simple, but the walls carry the massive, protruding letters, which weigh a total of 150 tonnes supported by only 26 columns. The proportions of this construction were also articulated in collaboration with Rijnboutt, while Studio Daniël Libeskind supervised the aesthetic design.
为了合理设计这座纪念碑，Rijnboutt确保将其精心融入周围环境，并使用可持续的优质材料。高级景观设计师Petrouschka Thumann说：“在我们的设计中，我们仔细考虑了如何使该地具有公园般的外观，与新教执事花园相协调，这座城市是一座美丽的和平绿洲。”事实上，半铺砌的表面、八棵孤植树都经过精心挑选，以呈现最完美的景观效果。 “我们尽可能地使用内敛的景观设计，以确保所有的注意力都集中在纪念碑上，”Thumann说。
To do the monument justice, Rijnboutt ensured that it was carefully integrated into the surroundings and that the landscape plan used sustainable, high-quality materials. “In our design, we thought carefully about how to give the location a park-like appearance that harmonises with the Garden of the Protestant Diaconate, a beautiful green oasis of peace in the city,” says senior landscape designer Petrouschka Thumann. Indeed, the semi-paved surface, the eight distinctive solitary trees and the hedges were carefully chosen. “Using a restrained landscape design ensured that all the attention goes to the monument,” says Thumann.
The creation of the Dutch Holocaust Memorial of Names was preceded by a complex process that lasted five years. A number of external advisors were involved, such as a structural engineer, a masonry specialist, a stainless steel specialist and a restoration construction company. Rijnboutt acted as the mouthpiece for all of the involved parties and supervised the implementation process.
Whenever there was a change or addition – from stones to lamps and fences – or a minor obstacle along the way, the drawings needed to be updated. By means of 3D models and detailed drawings, the consequences were highlighted, which Studio Libeskind subsequently visualised in design drawings to develop the best solution. There was weekly contact between us and Studio Libeskind to ensure that we stayed as close as possible to the essence of the design.
The Dutch Holocaust Memorial of Names is now the most up-to-date, palpable archive of the Dutch victims of the Holocaust: each name represents a person who perished and now has a place dedicated to his or her memory. “These people have not been forgotten and will never be forgotten,” says Jacques Grishaver, chairman of the Dutch Auschwitz Committee.
Project name: Dutch Holocaust Memorial of Names
Client: Dutch Auschwitz Committee (project manager Paul Rohlfs)
Design: Studio Libeskind – www.libeskind.com
Team Studio Libeskind: Daniel Libeskind, Stefan Blach, Johan van Lierop, Alex Tahinos, Amanda de Beaufort
Architect: Rijnboutt – www.rijnboutt.nl
Team Rijnboutt: Bart van der Vossen, Richard Koek, David Philipsen, Jan Oudeman, Jordy van der Veen, Marcel Bakker, Margret van den Broek, Marian Enders, Max Both, Patrick Kolanczyk, Paul Beijeman, Petrouschka Thumann, Rob Korlaar
Photographs: Kees Hummel
Construction Firm: IMd Raadgevend Ingenieurs
Masonry work: Metselwerk Adviesbureau Vekemans