To Continue the Genius Loci of Campus Culture
Kulangsu Island is located at the estuary of the Chiu-lung River in Fujian Province, facing Xiamen Island across the Lujiang River. Based on its outstanding universal value, Kulangsu, a historic international settlement, was officially listed as a world cultural heritage at the World Heritage Conference held in Krakow, Poland, in 2017.
The predecessor of the Xiamen Academy of Arts and Design was the Private Lucao Art School, the earliest arts and design school founded in New China in 1951. It was officially registered as the Xiamen Academy of Arts and Design of Fuzhou University in 1993. With changes in educational demands and scale, the entire campus was relocated to the University Town in Jimei District in 2010. Since then, the Kulangsu campus has been vacant. In 2018, Fuzhou University and Lianfa Group cooperated in launching the project of renovating and improving the old campus, hoping to adapt to the new demands of urban development.
工艺美院位于厦门鼓浪屿西北角，距离内厝澳码头150m 左右。南侧为西苑路，西、北侧为康泰路和鼓声路，东侧为鸡山路。校园内存有20 世纪90 年代欧陆风格建筑（综合楼）、60—70 年代风貌建筑（主副教学楼、雕塑工作室）和60—70 年代的普通建筑（男女生宿舍楼、实验室）三种建筑类型。
Located in the northwestern corner of Kulangsu Island, Xiamen City, the Kulangsu Art Park is 150m away from the Neicuoao Pier. It faces Xiyuan Road in the south, Kangtai Road and Gusheng Road in the west and north, and Jishan Road in the east. Buildings of three architectural types can be found on the campus, including the European-style buildings of the 1990s (comprehensive buildings), buildings of the 1960s and 1970s styles (the main and deputy teaching buildings and the sculpture studio), and ordinary buildings constructed between the 1960s and 1970s (dormitories for men and women and lab).
▲原建筑功能分析 Functional Analysis of Original Architecture
On the original site of the project stands a campus with an orderly spatial layout, a properly-arranged courtyard, and well-proportioned terrains. Although the campus has been vacant for eight years, one can still experience an intense artistic feel and see an elegant, quiet, and exquisite campus after walking inside. The Egret Goddess near the Yundang Lake stands on one side of the road, and the teaching buildings face shady green trees. White sculptures of diverse shapes are lined near the stairs, pleasing the eyes that dwell on them.
▲基地现状 Site Conditions
Based on the design team’s preliminary on-site investigations and survey analysis, this project enhanced the landscape centered on three themes: respecting and continuing cultural traditions of the site, increasing interactions between communities, and achieving public accessibility to the site.
The campus was renovated with low costs and minimal intervention. Out of respect for the site’s characteristics and the original natural environment, all materials on the site were retained and used repetitively, allowing the campus to gain rebirth with historical traces. Combining architectural functions, the vacant sites that failed to be used fully were reconstructed. Aside from returning to its normal life, the campus can provide a public space for neighboring residents and social communities to live, communicate, and interact with each other. By reviewing clear and reasonable principal and secondary traffic routes, an exit and entrance are added on the outside, while stairs and platforms are constructed inside. It combines current functional spaces and surrounding communities to the maximum extent, turning a closed campus into a growing cultural and artistic park that provides multiple experiences for the public.
Strategies for Plant Protection
To understand the site’s ecological status, sort out the content that deserves protection on the site, clarify the species of plants suitable for this site, and construct a multi-layered vegetation structure to enhance the biological diversity of the site。
Tranquil Art Park: The renovated Kulangsu Art Park shows ever-prominent ecological beauty. The natural plants coexist with buildings and blend with sculptures, attracting diverse birds to settle. Their pleasant chirping breaks the long-lost silence and fills the garden with vitality.
The landscape concept takes “Return of the Egret” as a narrative mainline and unfolds centered on representation and discovery of cultural atmosphere and the organic improvement of ecology and gardens in the campus cultural atmosphere. With the layout of “one circle and multiple points”, the open, historical, artistic, and cultural campus history veranda connects the Luchao Plaza, Egret Plaza, Laiqing Hill, Egret Park, and Art Space to create a cultural landscape in the space narration and an experiential landscape in the site space.
Luchao Plaza, as the main entrance to the park, is the most open functional space in the park. The original site was enclosed by walls and green hedges into a closed space, lacking interactions with architecture and the surrounding environment.
Hence the design organically combines the original background and preserved buildings and opens the plaza space in the center to build a place where visitors have parties, social interactions, learning, and explorations.
The opened interface allows the urban functional space to penetrate the park effectively and better guide into urban human traffic to activate the supporting services in the park. Thus, the park’s space can be connected with the urban space. The Central Plaza, where weekend market fairs, film screenings, and seasonable celebration activities, contributes to the beautiful image of the park, helping build a habitable, ecologically-friendly community and driving economic development in the region.
Grand Egret Central Plaza
When conducting the on-site investigation and survey, we noticed the Egret Goddess was well-preserved, carrying historical beauty and memories of the campus. Therefore, the reconstruction of this sculpture should observe the principles of low intervention and reversibility. More precisely, the green landscape on the site should be reviewed, reconstructed, and renovated on the condition of not moving the sculpture’s position. Meanwhile, stools should be added to create a bright, clear, and grand Egret Central Plaza.
The design retains the ancient banyan tree in the north of the site. Also, the tree pool has been renovated and cleaned. Meanwhile, the spatial layout is arranged centered on the ancient tree to coordinate landscape and architecture. The terrain, size, and vegetation are combined to create a dynamic public space, so that the ancient tree converses with the new environment in the surrounding region.
The symbolic emblems of the art park, Red Track and Sculpture Corridor, are renovated into sights with the strongest campus atmosphere. David, the thinker, Venus de Milo, Voltaire, and Gorky… Carved by students and teachers from art schools, these imitation sculptures are lined along the forest footpath. Set off by the first ray of the morning and dusk, shades of these trees appear gracefully, outlining the artistic beauty of light and shadows on the floor.
The outdoor space is designed centered on leisure, entertainment, sightseeing, and interactive experiences to enhance the site’s cohesiveness and leave space for future development.
The Art World design continues and preserves the site’s structural characteristics and functions. Overall, it considers improving landscape functions from three perspectives: recreational space, expanded space, and appreciation space. Besides, the design removes inaesthetic and impractical architecture and renovates historical and artistic landscape walls. Meanwhile, luxuriant plants with local characteristics are preserved, and the basketball court’s size is optimized and redivided. Lastly, a footpath is added to connect with the lawn space.
The Art World’s design extracts the spiral stair element and expands the design’s aesthetic beauty to an aerial view perceived from the sky through artistic lines. Meanwhile, the landscape and architecture are combined through flexible forms to create music with lingering charm.
In the green background, the spiral stairs, original plants, forest footpath, and curved grass slope rise and fall along the terrain and are well-proportioned. As if dancing gracefully in the air, these flexible lines connect leisure, landscape, recreation, and outdoor activities. The constructed lawn space can be fully utilized by citizens and serve as a venue for art fairs and camps under the starry sky.
Contemporary Art Center
The Contemporary Art Center’s design artfully uses the changes in scale and height difference. The artistic red brick and bedding of the original site are combined into an enclosed and geometrical domain space. Plant landscape is used to organize the plaza and architectural space, which eliminates spatial boundaries and presents a completely new spatial experience. Thus, human behaviors, architecture, and landscape are connected to create a new landscape that continues the genius loci and carries local innovations.
The design of the outdoor courtyard combines functions and aesthetics and is equipped with artistic leisure stools, forming a space where architecture is fully integrated with nature. The multi-purpose space is open and noisy, making it a perfect space for being close to nature and relaxing one’s mind and body.
On May Day, 2022, the art zone of Kulangsu Island—Luchao Kulangsu Art Park—was opened. Despite constant rainfall, nearly ten thousand citizens were attracted to the park and attended the first Island Carnival activity.
The Pioneer Theater significantly improves the negative space. Bright-colored artistic stools and a series of active functional spaces are combined, providing a flexible space for strolling, resting, or small gatherings. Meanwhile, plenty of perennial plants encircle the courtyard’s principal space and create a relaxing, quiet atmosphere.
Climbing up the stairs, one will enter the Student Garden. The abandoned stones on the site are used fully. Meanwhile, current trees, shrubs, and herbal plants, as well as other low-maintenance plants, are combined to reconstruct the under-used greenbelt into an ecological garden and reconnect constructed architecture and the natural environment.
Laiqing Hill has been covered by weeds and ivy leaves for years. The original site has a complex terrain and single, obstructed flow lines. Thus the priority of spatial reconstruction and promotion lies in creating an application scenario and image with new vitality based on respecting the reality and originality of the environment.
Based on preserving the original terrain and shrubs, the design connects the entrance, platform, trees, and grassland through meandering paths and implants abundant social sites to achieve a flexible layout and multi-dimensional use of landscape, turning the Egret Forest into an intriguing exploratory place.
Aside from luxuriant shrubs, the water tower and sculptures on the site are artistic, bringing an artistic and natural mountainous forest. It provides users with pro-natural experiences and continues the site’s historical memories.
Enlightened by the ecological environment in the park, the design makes full use of local plants to reconstruct the zone where under-utilized lawns and shrubs are connected into one ecologically sustainable park after another. The natural, wild, and gracefully-shaped ornamental grass and the preserved primitive vegetation not only enhance the plant diversity but also attracts birds, insects, and many small wild animals.
The stones left on the site are fully used to create landscapes. Stones dug out during construction were paved into a footpath, while the newly-constructed landscape platform is made of natural stones permeable to water. This design not only saves costs but also is conducive to the growth of plants.
▲场地生长演变 GROWTH AND EVOLUTION
Slight changes occur every day, which cannot do without the diligent efforts of these operating personnel.
The upgraded and reconstructed Luchao Kulangsu Art Park covers an area of 30,000 ㎡, with a total floor area of 22,000 m2. It consists of four parts: the international art education and research base, the international artistic settlement and creation camp, the international artistic exchange, exhibition, and sales center, and the artistic experience and consumption destination.
▲功能分区 FUNCTION DIVISION
The landscape design has preserved the campus’s image, history, and cultures to the maximum extent, creating a new garden space that is ecological, interesting, interactive, and exquisite. Meanwhile, an artistic and cultural atmosphere is created to enhance the quality of the environment and space of the site and leave adequate space for future development to facilitate the continuous update of exhibitions, performances, and artistic activities. People are encouraged to stroll and spend their quality time in the park.
▲总平面图 Master plan
Project Name: Cultural Improvement and Art Reshaping Project of Kulangsu Campus of Xiamen Academy of Arts and Design, Fuzhou University
Developer: Xiamen Kulangsu Investment Development Co., Ltd.
Construction agency: Xiamen Lianfa Engineering Management Co., Ltd.
Landscape design: GND Jiedi Landscape Design
Design content: landscape renovation and improvement
Project Location: Kulangsu Island, Xiamen, Fujian Province
Design time: April 2019
Completion date: March 2022
Landscape area: 25600 ㎡
Chief Designer: Yongcheng Zhong, Ge Qiu, Bing Li
Concept Design: Chao Li, Yanlin Zhu, Xinyi Zou, Jia Li, Yatian Pan
Garden design: Juan Huang, Chen Chen, Yubin Liu, Penghui Xu, Yuanting Liu, Juyi He, Zongdong Yan, Jie Zhang
Plant Design: Chuyi Luo
Architectural Design: CCDI (Beijing) Architectural Design Consultants Co., Ltd.
Zhongyuan (Xiamen) Engineering Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Art Museum Design: URBANUS (Beijing) Architectural Design Consulting Co., Ltd.
Construction: Fujian Longcheng Construction Group Co., Ltd.
Landscape construction: Guangzhou Donglai Garden Engineering Co., Ltd.
Supervision: Xiamen Gaochengxin Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
Project Photography: Riye Photography
Planning/Visual Effects: iDEER LAB
Company website: www.gnd.hk
Contact Email: email@example.com
更新日期：2023-02-27 19:35:48非常感谢 GND杰地景观 带来的精彩项目， 查阅更多