“空心村” 是中国农村地区普遍存在的一个现象，整个村庄的原住民都搬迁到新农村住宅区去了，剩下他们破旧的宅基地。FA 设计师公社选了西窑头村为改建空心村的开首，该村有 16 块宅基地，改造后成为共享农庄，为农民提供宅基地的收益，解决当地部分贫困户的就业，振兴蔚县的剪纸，打树花等非遗的文化传承。河北张家口西窑头农村振兴项目始于FA青年建筑师奖竞赛， “西窑洞里” 是胜出的十二位设计师作品之一。
"Hollow villages" are a common phenomenon in China rural areas. Most of the aboriginal households of the village have moved to the new rural residential areas, leaving their dilapidated homesteads. Considering the cultural heritage in Yu County such as paper-cutting, wood crafting and ‘Fiery Trees and Silver Flowers’, the Fortune Art (FA) Homestay selected Xiyaotou Village, out of 100 villages in Yu County, as the beginning of village poverty alleviation. The village have been transformed into communal farms to provide local villagers with income via offering accommodation, local food services and activities. The rural revitalization project of Xiyaotou Village started with the 2018 FA Emerging Architect Award. "Grotto Retreat Xiyaotou" is one of the 12 winning designs.
“西窑洞里” 南侧是湖景及当地村部落，北侧是自然绿化景观。沿东西轴线，在这块扁长的地块上平行于边界布置。设计概念以农村与城市人际网络的本质差别作起点，以直立式 “窑洞” 融入木栈道的手法重新呈现场地原有的窑洞居所，通过把原始 (农村“熟人社会”) 的洞穴居住形式并置于现代(城市“陌人社会”) 的生活模式，从而希望实现一个公共与私密并存的社区群体。隐藏的四乘六米的轴线网格源于场地原有窑洞居所之长宽比尺寸，作为连廊结构布置的基调，精神意义上支撑着新建筑群。在新建“窑洞”的处理手法上，取道于分散的量体、双曲线有机形体、门窗框尺寸比例和当地的材料与建造方式，使建筑群可兼容于场地以及其他作品之间。
The design concept starts with the radical difference between the rural and urban interpersonal networks, the native cave dwellings of the site are re-interpreted as vertical "grottos”. By flowing the bridge of connectivity in between the private “grottos”, the design attempts to realize a community in which public and private coexist. The bridge is supported by a hidden four-by-six-meter grid, which is derived from the length-to-width ratio of the original cave dwellings on the site. It serves as the keynote for the layout of the corridor structure and supports the new building complex in a spiritual sense. Wandering under and above the wooden bridge, one could oversee surrounding landscape and aboriginal architecture of Yu County, which are framed by the hyperbolic facade, pine wood columns and corten-steel fenestration of the complex. For the treatment of the vertical "grottos” unit, with the implementation of scattered volumes, hyperbolic shapes, various fenestration dimensions, local materials and construction methods, the building complex attempts to be compatible with the site and amongst other works.
▼轴测图，连廊依照4×6米的轴线网格布置，axonometric, bridge supported by a four-by-six meter grid
With assistance of the seven-meter-high ceiling, the sun roof of the vertical “grottos” encourages residents to focus on the verticality of the space, “housed by the sky and the earth, and clothed by the house” (Liu Ling). The introduction of generous skylights contextualises residents to rurality’s rhythm of “working from dawn to dusk” and further expose their sensitivity to the sun’s trajectory. Climatically, in order to warm the three quarters of Zhangjiakou averaging 10 Degree Celsius, sun rays enter through skylights and are preserved by double-layered brick walls; during summer, heat can be discharged via chimney effect given rise by the collaboration of the unit’s geometry and fenestration.during summer, heat can be discharged via chimney effect given rise by the collaboration of the unit’s geometry and fenestration.
The protruding bricks on the elevation, as the vehicle of a part of the construction process, were the position where the scaffolding found its temporary support for bricklayers to complete the double-layered brick wall with an average height of 7 meters. Their visibility on the facade depends on the intensity of the sun and cloud density. The shadow of the protrusions and wood bridge cast on the hyperboloid morphs with the sun’s trajectory, emerging ephemeral time-spaces.
Considering the future development direction of the complex, the volume dispersal method of the settlement can increase the tolerance of different functions in the future. Between the "cave" and "cave" and the wooden walkway can be used for sculpture or other installation art exhibition space, and the rural spatial experience can be continued between the volumes. In addition to establishing a good physical relationship with the countryside, the appropriate operation mode and the production and regeneration of cultural content are the driving force for the sustainable development of the rural revitalization project, so that the building can become a true cultural carrier and engine.
▼地面层平面图，ground floor plan
▼二层平面图，first floor plan
建筑设计：一间建筑 A( )VOID
指导单位：北京市密云区人民政府 / 张家口市人民政府 / 中国物业管理协会乡村振兴协作委员会
摄影师：郭哲 | 微风建筑摄影